The topic Fundamental Particles and Forces exploits accelerators, particle detectors at storage rings and huge computing infrastructures as well as laboratory and test-beam infrastructures. The major ones are:
- LHC and the experiments
The Large Hadron Collider at
is the world's largest particle accelerator and top priority in the worldwide elementary particle physics strategy. LHC started operation in 2008. Until the beginning of the Long Shutdown 1 in early 2013, the machine delivered close to 30 fb–1 of data to the general purpose experiments ATLAS and CMS, at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. Yet the machine
is still in its infancy. The current LHC planning foresees a restart of the physics programme at 13–14 TeV in early 2015 and the collection of about 350 fb–1 until the beginning of the Long Shutdown 3 that will equip the LHC for high-luminosity running (HL-LHC) with the goal of collecting 3000 fb–1.
- SuperKEKB and Belle II: The KEK accelerator at the Japanese high energy physics laboratory KEK is currently being upgraded to SuperKEKB, a next-generation b-quark factory that starts up in 2015 and aims at achieving a luminosity of 8 1035 cm–2 s–1 and a data sample as large as 50 ab–1 in the rst half of the next decade. The Belle II experiment is designed to make use of high-precision measurements of phenomena like CP violation or of interference e ects in e+e– collisions. The Belle II collaboration is formed by 94 institutions from 23 countries, comprising about 600 physicists.
- GridKa at KIT: The German Tier-1 computing centre is hosted at KIT. As a Tier-1 centre, GridKa is mainly responsible for custodial storage of raw and processed data and centrally coordinated processing and re-processing campaigns. It constitutes an important node for data distribution and provides archival tape storage for raw and simulated data. GridKa primarily serves the LHC computing needs, which are most demanding, but also serves non-LHC experiments such as Belle II and others. On a worldwide scale the German share in Tier-1 computing slightly exceeds the fraction of German authors on LHC physics publications. This imbalance is well explained by the lack of Tier-1 installations in some collaborating countries.
- Tier-2 centre and NAF at DESY: At its two locations in Hamburg and Zeuthen, DESY is operating a Tier-2 centre providing massive computing and storage facilities for the LHC experiments ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. Together with the National Analysis Facility (NAF), DESY's Tier-2 centre is one of the largest among the globally distributed centres of the "Worldwide LHC Computing Grid" (WLCG) and always counts among the top-performing centres for uptime and reliability.
- Test-beam facility at
DESY presently operates the
synchrotron as pre-accelerator for the
facility. In parallel DESY II delivers electron or positron beams to three test-beam areas using a xed target with an energy variable between 1 and 6 GeV. Next to
CERN — which has beam facilities for even higher energies and different particles (hadrons, muon and neutrinos) —
is currently the only laboratory in Europe which can deliver highly energetic particles in the multi-GeV range.
The three test-beam areas provide sucient space for the installation of larger-scale detector prototypes. Two of the beam areas are equipped with high-resolution pixel beam telescopes to provide precise track information, an extremely useful tool for testing tracking detector prototypes. The third beam line provides a large-bore super-conducting magnet for prototype testing in magnetic elds of up to 1 T strength.
In the topic Fundamental Particles and Forces, the planned infrastructures concentrate on the exploitation of the full potential of the LHC machine via upgraded detectors and massively extended computing facilities as outlined below. In addition, the ILC, as the next large facility for elementary particle physics, has a high priority:
The International Linear Collider — a linear e+e– collider of up to 1 TeV centre-of-mass energy — is the next large international project in elementary particle physics, supported by German, European and international roadmaps. As a precision tool, the ILC is the ideal complement to the LHC; it will be able to measure, with the highest precision, the details of the new state discovered at 126 GeV and also of other signatures of New Physics yet to be discovered. The ILC, for the construction of which a site was selected in August 2013, will be based on SCRF technology developed at
thus placing the laboratory in a very